24-Bit, 4.7 Hz, 4-Channel Analog Data Acquisiton System (CN0251)
The circuit shown in Figure 1 is a flexible signal conditioning circuit for processing signals of wide dynamic range, varying from several mV p-p to 20 V p-p. The circuit provides the necessary conditioning and level shifting and achieves the dynamic range using the internal programmable gain amplifier (PGA) of the high resolution analog-to-digital converter (ADC).
A ±10 V full-scale signal is very typical in process control and industrial automation applications; however, in some situations, the signal can be as small as several mV. Attenuation and level shifting is necessary to process a ±10 V signal with modern low voltage ADCs. However, amplification is needed for small signals to make use of the dynamic range of the ADC. Therefore, a circuit with a programmable gain function is desirable when the input signal varies over a wide range.
In addition, small signals may have large common-mode voltage swings; therefore, high common-mode rejection (CMR) is required. In some applications, where the source impedance is large, high impedance is also necessary for the analog front-end input circuit.
Figure 1. Flexible Analog Front-End Circuit for Wide Industrial Range Signal Conditioning
The circuit shown in Figure 1 solves all of these challenges and provides programmable gain, high CMR, and high input impedance. The input signal passes through the 4-channel ADG1409 multiplexer into the AD8226 low cost, wide input range instrumentation amplifier. The AD8226 offers high CMR up to 80 dB and very high input impedance (800 Mв„¦ differential mode and 400 Mв„¦ common mode). A wide input range and rail-to-rail output allow the AD8226 to make full use of the supply rails.
The AD8475 is a fully differential, attenuating amplifier with integrated precision gain resistors. It provides precision attenuation (G = 0.4 or G = 0.8), common-mode level shifting, and single-ended-to-differential conversion. The AD8475 is an easy to use, fully integrated precision gain block, designed to process signal levels up to ±10 V on a single supply. Therefore, the AD8475 is suitable for attenuating signals from the AD8226 up to 20 V p-p, while maintaining high CMR and offering a differential output to drive the differential input ADC.
The AD7192 is a 24-bit sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) ADC with an internal PGA. The on-chip, low noise gain stage (G = 1, 8, 16, 32, 64, or 128) means that signals of large and small amplitude can be interfaced directly to the ADC.
With the combination of the previous parts, the circuit offers very good performance and easy configuration for signals with varying amplitudes. The circuit can be used in industrial automation, process control, instrumentation, and medical equipment applications.
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